Posted by: archaccess | February 17, 2017

How can I get involved with archaeology?

Have you ever wanted to get more involved with history or archaeology? With spring just around the corner maybe its time to dust off those old boots and get out there!


There are many ways to get involed, whatever your fitness level; take a look at our list of local history and archaeological societies in your area. If you want to go further afield, there are lists of national community digs on the Council for British Archaeology website, and the Past Horizons website. You can also search for the type of dig you may want to be involved in on the Current Archaeology website and there are other organisations such as Dig Ventures, The Dig Site, Archaeology Scotland, Archaeology Wales and  Archaeology Ireland, where you can learn more.

The Archaeological Institute of America also has fieldwork opportunites, take a look at their webiste here, as well as volunteer projects abroad, and there are even a range of volunteering projects you can be involved with in this country.

For the youngsters out there, there is the Young Archaeologists Club (YAC) for ages 8-16 to get hands on with digging as well as a range of other activities. See their website for more details and where your nearest branch is.

So get out there and make 2017 the year that you discover something new!


Posted by: archaccess | February 6, 2017

ACA’s HEFA test pitting to become ILAFS

What’s in a name? HEFA is becoming ILAFS!

Since its inception in 2005 Access Cambridge Archaeology has been running interactive field schools for secondary school pupils, aiming to raise their aspirations to Higher Education. This work takes up the majority of our year, and has changed and evolved accordingly over time. We’re always trying to improve the field schools to make them more and more beneficial and worthwhile for pupils, something that is increasingly important as teachers and pupils alike struggle to find time for such activities in the already-packed curriculum.  With that in mind, we felt the time was right for a name change. This marks the conscious re-alignment of the programme to respond to the needs of pupils considering their future learning in the current state of Higher Education.


To mark this, we are changing the name of our current three-day field schools from the Higher Education Field Academy (HEFA) to the Independent Learning Archaeology Field School (ILAFS). We feel the name ILAFS (we’re going with pronouncing it “eye-laffs”) better reflects our aims of raising the aspirations, enthusiasm and attainment of 14-17 year-olds with regard to Higher Education. The greatest benefits of the field school is that we are able to specifically supporting independent learning, demonstrate methods of historical enquiry, and most of all showcase the different methods of learning which are the particular speciality of universities.

This isn’t just a change of name for the sake of it; we’re also achieving these aims by improving the 2017 programme of field schools. The same basic structure of a two-day excavation and third day of university experience will remain.  Improvements include extending the University experience to include a visit to the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, more tightly directed lectures, together with wider discussion and debate of research. Altogether the ILAFS programme will showcase to pupils the benefits of university education, get them engaging at this level, and leave them with the skills to achieve this goal. If you’d like to learn more about these changes or the field schools in general please contact us directly.


Posted by: archaccess | February 6, 2017

ACA’s annual thank-you day event

On Saturday ACA welcomed over 50 guests to the McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research on the Downing Site in Cambridge for our annual thank-you day event, to celebrate and review our past years achievements and to thank all the local coordinators and volunteers who support our ongoing work both within schools and the wider community.

The morning session was led by Alison Dickens, both manager at ACA and a project manager at the Cambridge Archaeological Unit (CAU), in which we reviewed our 2016 field schools in 14 villages across East Anglia as well as in Lincolnshire and Hampshire and briefly talked about the archaeological results for each settlement.


2016 HEFA locations in red



A round up slide of the HEFA excavation in Sawtry 2016

The talk also included some examples of the reports that the students submit after the dig, which are then graded by us and the participants then not only receive a grade for their written work but also an overall mark for their participation over the full three days (the first two days are digging in a village and on the third day the students visit the University of Cambridge and have lunch in one of the colleges).

Feedback from these excavations is almost always rated as good or excellent, some quotes from 2016 students that were shown on Saturday can be seen below.

I especially enjoyed how independent the process was in a close group.”(TP BLO/16)

“The lectures were good and taught us to a level we are not used to. The information I have learnt will be invaluable to the writing of the report.” (TM BLO/16).

 “I feel I have gained courage and communication skills.” (LB SOU/16)

“I think this has been very helpful for my plans for the future and also very influential. Thank you!” (SE HAD/16).

“I enjoyed learning more information about the university. Also, I like that any questions we has could be answered by students and we were treated as students.” (KH RIS/16)

“Day Three at Cambridge was incredibly valuable. The experience confirmed my every aspiration and expectation!” (ZC NWA/16)

“I felt that this was a great experience and has been very beneficial for me. I felt that the staff from HEFA or ACA have been very helpful in terms of making information very accessible to everyone.” (PG NWA/16).

“I really enjoyed doing something practical, because in school we just learn from books.” (EP-R ERU/16)

“[I enjoyed being] Given responsibility of working with equipment safely and being treated like and adult.”  (RGD CLV/16)

The morning session was rounded off by brief introduction by Emily Ryley about ACA’s new Cambridge Archaeology Learning Foundation (CALF) primary school days in which ACA go into primary schools, teaching pupils age 7-11, to gain an understanding of how we discover the past through a range of hands-on activities with real artefacts. Our guests then enjoyed a buffet lunch with time to mingle and chat with the ACA team as well as other local coordinators past and present.


Pupils learning on ACA’s new CALF day

After lunch, the afternoon session focused on ACA’s community work from 2016 and included the archaeological test pitting in Snape with Touching the Tide, and ACA’s joint projects with the CAU that included the excavation of five test pits at Jesus College, Cambridge as part of an archaeology summer school for prospective Cambridge undergraduate students that was funded by St Johns College, Cambridge. The largest of ACA’s projects in 2016 was the two week commuity led excavation at Peterborough Cathedral. The dig was part of the Cathedral’s ‘Peterborough 900: Letting it speak for itself’ project which had been awarded money from the Heritage Lottery Fund (HLF) as part of these 900th anniversary celebrations of the cathedral in 2018. This will also include the construction of a new Heritage Centre at the cathedral which from March this year will also house a number of finds from the excavations.


Aerial view of Peterborough Cathedral with the excavation area outlined in red

The post-excavation work at Peterborough Cathedral is still on-going, but Alison was able to touch upon some of the results so far, the intial blog for the excavation results can be seen here. A number of both local volunteers and primary school children were involved in the excavations in some way and the dig culminated in the Peterborough Hertiage Festival with nearly 1000 visitors to the site over one weekend!


The younger volunteers and school groups at Peterborough Cathedral

Feedback was again incredibly positive from the younger volunteers when asked ‘Why would you recommend this activity to others?’ and responded with:

“because it is fun and awesome”

“because you learn and come together”

“It’s something to do outside instead of TV screens”

“It’s an enjoyable way to learn about history of places”  

The day ended wtih us looking forward to 2017, particularly with the 15 field schools that are already scheduled to take place. ACA are changing the name of these from HEFA’s (the Higher Education Field Academy) to ILAFS for 2017 and beyond, which now stands for the Independent Learning Archaeology Field School and the upcoming community work that ACA will again aid the CAU in as part of the large excavations at Northstowe, to the north of Cambridge. More information about how to volunteer at Northstowe as well as the open days and potential test pitting in the neighbouring village of Longstanton will be available soon. Keep an eye on ACA’s blog, facebook and twitter pages to keep up to date with all our on-going activities!

The thank-you day though is really about all the local village coordinators, both past and present who support us tirelessly in making the test pitting field schools a reality each year and enabling us to continue to directly engage with around 500 secondary school students each year, boosting their confidence and aspirations towards higher education. So a very big thank you to all our coordinators, volunteers, beacon schools, all our visitors and to those we have worked with over the last year, it has been a great year for ACA and we look forward to working and seeing as many of you as possible again this coming year.


Posted by: archaccess | January 26, 2017

Northstowe Phase Two

It has been some time since we last posted on our blog but that doesn’t mean we have been sitting idle over the winter, far from it! We are currently planning future community work, open days, and working with primary schools in the area as part of the excavations at Northstowe.  It’s a new development of around 10,000 new homes being built on the edge of Longstanton village, just north of Cambridge. The development continues apace and last Friday Cat and Emily went for a visit to the site to better understand the archaeology being done by the Cambridge Archaeological Unit (CAU) prior to the arrival of the builders.


The proposed development

The development at Northstowe is being done over several phases. Phase one is located on the west side of Longstanton on the site of the old golf course and the archaeology there was completed in late 2015. Multiple phases of occupation were found; dating to the Iron Age, Roman, Anglo-Saxon and Medieval periods. The first building to be completed in the new town was Hatton Park Primary school which now sits on an area of Anglo Saxon settlement, where at least 20 structures, including houses were found. Nearby, the recovery of 20 or so skeletons where found buried just to the south of the Saxon village, and in the remains of the original Roman town.  Post excavation analysis has suggested that these burials were not high status, but of every day Anglo-Saxons, who were buried with a small number of grave goods that were common at that time, including both beads and brooches.


Roman graffiti on pottery from Phase 1

The earlier Romano-British settlement was a linear hamlet, offset from a central metalled road. This road probably would have linked west to the Via Divina, the Roman road where the A14 now runs, that connected Roman Cambridge (Duroliponte) in the south to Godmanchester (Durovigutum) in the north. Over 500 Roman coins were found across the spread of occupation that also spanned the entire Roman period from the 1st to mid-5th century AD. It appears to have been a ‘standard’ Roman rural settlement, as actually a second Roman settlement has been identified in phase two of the Northstowe excavations just half a kilometre away to the south.

Phase two of Northstowe is located on the site of the Oakington Barracks and Immigration detention centre and to the south of phase one. As mentioned a separate Roman settlement has been found here, potentially around the same size as Roman Cambridge (although the work here is still ongoing). The excavations so far undertaken here suggest that this settlement has more in the way of specialist activities being undertaken, compared to the settlement in phase one. A Roman pottery kiln is currently being excavated that would have produced pottery similar to a type known as Horningsea ware. During its excavation it could be seen how the kiln was used, including a shallow depression where the kiln debris had been repeatedly raked out and left in situ.  It appears that on one firing the kiln broke and was abandoned with the pottery still left inside. A number of other interesting finds have so far been excavated from phase two and include a small figure of a god, likely made of lead which may have come from a piece of furniture. The figure may be a fairly rare example and will be need to be investigated further. Next to the road also in this settlement was found large amounts of iron working and iron slag that might suggest the location of a blacksmith, or perhaps a farrier given the convenient location for transport. Other metal objects found represent many aspects of daily Roman life.


Broken and missaped pottery left behind in the kiln


Husband and wife team- Cat Collins, Access Cambridge Archaeology and Mat Collins, Cambridge Archaeological Unit at the Northstowe Phase Two excavations

As the excavations in phase two continue through the summer there will be plenty of opportunities for members of the public to get involved. ACA will be visiting Hatton Park primary school and Over Primary school to deliver our new hand-on archaeology sessions: CALF days, kindly being sponsored by the Homes and Communities Agency. On CALF days pupils will be able to handle real artefacts, look at a ‘dig’ and make their own interpretations of the evidence in their classrooms. We’re also hoping to excavate test pits within Longstanton again this summer, with Longstanton and District Heritage Society (LADHS). Access Cambridge Archaeology helped the community excavate 5 test pits in the autumn of 2015, the results of which you can read more about here. The test pitting in Longstanton will aid in understanding the relationship between the settlements identified during the Northstowe excavations and the current layout and position of the village of Longstanton.

The CAU are planning to host at least two open days this spring and summer, with the opportunity for members of the public to see what has been found, have guided tours around the site and to generally learn more about the history and archaeology of the landscape around Longstanton. Dates for these open days will be announced soon and we hope you will be able to visit and see the excavations for yourself as they progress.

On Friday we ran our first ever CALF day- Cambridge Archaeology Learning foundation. Covering everything from what archaeology is, what we study, what it tells us and how it gets there, CALF sessions introduce the essentials of archaeology to those aged 7-11. The sessions are taught in the classroom, using a wide range of fun, hands- on activities using real artefacts.

Foxton Primary school welcomed us for our first ever CALF day were we spent the morning with a mixed year 3 and 4 class. After a brief introduction explaining what archaeology is (we don’t do dinosaurs!), we demonstrated some of the tools we use, and the kind of objects we find. Many of them had heard a bit about archaeology before, and were keen to share what they had found in their own gardens. There is nothing like some practical learning however and we soon started on our activities. Pupils loved digging through their own ‘midden’ looking for seeds to identify. Historical maps pulled on other subject skill areas as did looking at real animal bones. They had great fun identifying what the mystery skeleton was and handling a real lion skull! Pupils got to identify pieces of pottery from ACA’s excavations – and were amazed to realise that some of the pottery they held in their hand was over 2200 years old!

The second half of the morning we looked at understanding how we can tell how old objects are, and what does and does not survive. It’s a tricky concept to imagine, but with our handy ‘excavation’ in the classroom, pupils were able to dig through different layers and find objects. We then looked what the objects can tell us about the past. It may just be a bit of old pottery to you, but what did people use it for? What can it tell us about the technology of how it was made? Where is it from and what trade routes brought it here? Pupils then got to put these ideas in to practise by being the archaeologists themselves. They examined boxes of objects from different periods and came up with their own interpretations.

It was all great fun, and was repeated with a mixed year 5 and 6 class in the afternoon. The content worked well for all age groups, as archaeology is such an interesting subject, there are always more questions you can ask about the past. The rest of the school didn’t miss out on the fun however! At assembly time we played a game of Call my Bluff with some of the more unusual objects from the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. Archaeologists have to interpret objects to understand the people who used them, and everyone had a great time guessing what the objects were.

The sessions are designed to hit the overarching aims of the National curriculum for history and as such introduce students to ideas of historical enquiry, concepts of change, and how we use evidence. Importantly they also help demonstrate the depth of time; rather than focusing on one time period, pupils understand how they all fit together. It’s important to build on pupils’ knowledge however so examples can be linked back to topics pupils are currently studying.

Overall the days were very well received, with feedback from staff at Foxton Primary school giving very positive reviews highlighting “The combination of hands-on learning and lateral thinking” and “A good mix of both hands on and thinking. Great range of artefacts. I particularly liked the use of drawers to demonstrate the layers of earth.” Having had such a fantastic first go we are keen to offer the sessions to more schools! Sessions are currently structured as a half-day with each class but can be modified according to schools needs and budget.

If you would like ACA to visit a primary school near you, please visit for more details or contact us at


Alison Dickens, manager of ACA and at the CAU and who led the dig will be giving a talk about the community excavation that took place at Peterborough Cathedral a couple of months ago. The talk will be held at the cathedral and hosted by the Friends of Peterborough Cathedral (more information on the talk can be found here) on Saturday 17th September. The talk is free (although donations to the cathedral will be of course welcome!) and will begin at 11.30am.



Posted by: archaccess | August 3, 2016

St John’s Summer School


Last week, the Division of Archaeology at the University of Cambridge, organised a summer school event, kindly paid for by St Johns College, for prospective Cambridge University archaeology undergraduates who have just completed Year 12 and are about to start applying to university.

A total of 43 sixth-formers attended the summer school, coming from both state and private schools across the UK and abroad. Dr Martin Worthington, a lecturer in Assyriology and a fellow of St Johns College and Laure Bonner, former ACA administrator and now the Outreach and Communication Officer for the Division; organised the event, which took place over four packed days where the students stayed in St Johns College and received many talks and taster lectures as well as various tours and practical sessions about the different components of studying archaeology at Cambridge.

P1160990For two of the days, the students were also given practical excavation training in Jesus College, organised by the Cambridge Archaeological Unit (CAU) with help from ACA, where the students opened five 1m2 test pits in the north-west corner of the college and behind the current graduate accommodation that fronts Lower Park Street (Map of test pits). Cat Collins of ACA also gave the students an introductory briefing the day before the digging, to prepare for the dig and relevant health and safety guidance.

Craig Cessford from the CAU as well as both Emily Ryley and Cat Collins from ACA were on hand for both days to advise and guide the students, who undertook the whole excavation process themselves. The test pit excavation and recording was based on the test pitting strategy that ACA undertake with year 9 and 10 students from local schools throughout East Anglia as part of the Higher Education Field Academy (HEFA) programme. The students digging in Jesus College de-turfed, excavated, sieved and washed all the finds, recorded the test pit and then backfilled within the two days.


Previous excavations by the CAU at Jesus College had found multiple phases of occupation on site dating from the Neolithic and Bronze Age with both worked flints and Beaker pottery found, but the first phase of significant archaeology in the area was Iron Age ditched enclosures, with a later Roman field system potentially contemporary with the Roman cemetery that was excavated from property basements nearby.

P1170046A Benedictine nunnery was founded on the site during the early 12th century, dedicated to St Radegund and  lay outside the city boundary, the Kings Ditch, just to the east. The nunnery lasted until the late 15th century, when it was already in a bad state of repair and it was the initiative of Bishop John Alcock of Ely to use the dilapidated church and buildings to found a new college. Jesus College was named for the chapel that was originally part of the nunnery.


3All five test pits yielded a number of finds, test pit one at the far western end came down onto a large dump of material with large fragments of plates and dishes that one student in particular was very keen to try to put it all back together! The test pit was located near to the service passageway and the access gate so this part of the garden may have been used by all as a place to dispose of rubbish within a planting bed or similar feature and contained common types of table wares of the era as well as three infant feeding bottle fragments that at least shows that the servant accommodation here may have been multi-generational.  Test pit two was one of the deepest excavated although was still in top soil at 0.8m and it too had a range of post medieval and later finds including a marble and a bone handle fragment with possible writing engraved on it. A number of fragments of medieval pottery were also found.


Test pit three was the central pit along the back of the cottages and through which two thin lead pipes were found along the western half of the pit which subsequently restricted the digging but a number of large fragments of butchered animal bone were discovered as well as more personal artefacts such as a slate pencil, part of a toothbrush and a likely bone parchment pricker. This would have been primarily used to prick holes down the edges of parchment as a guide for ruling lines and would have likely dated from the 13th-14th century. A white/yellow brick wall, with at least f0ur courses remaining was found through the middle of test pit four. The wall was angled at right angles to the 19th century cottages and the scarring visible on the Lower Park Street terrace houses suggests it would have likely have been a boundary garden wall to the back yards and would have stood at least 1.5m tall.

P1170099Test pit five was the eastern most pit excavated at Jesus College and may have actually been outside the original house garden boundary as there was a distinct change in the soils, with not much in the way of top soil but a lot of likely builders disturbance. Craig also taught a few of the students about taking levels of the site for the final report and then all the test pits were augured before final recording and backfilling. The auguring determined the approximate depth of the natural in each test pit, which for the majority was over 2m in-depth and would not have been reached within the confines of the test pit and the time available. These excavations have therefore demonstrated the depth of build up of the ground, potentially both through episodes of flooding as well as from human activity.


P1170156A number of inferences can be made from the test pit excavations; five sherds of Roman pottery were excavated and suggest that this area of the college lay within the surrounding Romano-British field systems or some other peripheral landscape to the Roman town of Cambridge. A single sherd of Late Anglo Saxton Thetford-type ware pottery was also found with 24 sherds of 13th-15th century pottery, all of which was mixed in with the 18th-20th century material, although it was predominately found through the lower layers of the test pits and suggesting further non-intensive and peripheral activity outside the town of Cambridge and associated with the nunnery and/or college. The bulk of all the material excavated from the excavations dated to between the 18th and 20th centuries and is broadly typical of assemblages of this date that have previously been found from Cambridge. Interestingly though there are two possible examples of collegiate ceramics that were also recorded from the test pits; one depicting a name that may relate to Jesus College but the other clearly shows the fountain from the Great Court at Trinity College.

The pdf of the full report can be downloaded from here: 1347 JTP16 Lower Pk St Jesus College-1

A number of lecturers and staff from the Division of Archaeology also stopped by during the excavation and chatted with the students, answering questions and giving further insights into studying at the University of Cambridge. Feedback from all the students who took part in the summer school was also very positive with just over 90% of the students rating the excavation portion of the summer school was ‘excellent’ and a number of students also stating that they specifically enjoyed the test pit digging over the other activities. One student, when asked ‘What aspects did you enjoy?’ said; “I enjoyed everything. I liked the dig as I had never done that before and it was an amazing experience”, whilst another student stated “The excavation, learning about the different aspects of archaeology and putting it into practice” and from another: “The excavation was enjoyable to get some hands on experience”.


Many thanks must go again to all involved with organising and helping out with the summer school during the week and for St Johns College who funded the event. Thanks also to the many kind people of Jesus College who allowed all the students to dig and all in the Division who came to support both the CAU and ACA.

Posted by: archaccess | August 2, 2016

3D imaging of Peterborough Cathedral Excavations

Jacob Scott, one of the voluneer diggers at Peterborough Cathedral last month and part of the Events and Services Team at Rochester Cathedral has produced amazing 3D images of all the trenches and test pits that were excavated during the 2 week dig at the end of June 2016.


All the various images can be found here:

Posted by: archaccess | July 25, 2016

Snape Community Dig Report is now available online

The community test pitting event run with Touching the Tide over the weekend of the 7th and 8th of May this year in Snape was a very successful event both involving over 40 members of the local community and excavating a total of 15 test pits. The write up of all the results can now be downloaded as a pdf from the ACA website here. Many thanks again to all who were invloved with the excavations.

TP 3e

For our last Higher Education Field Academy of the year we were at Long Melford, a lovely village in Suffolk similar to other wool-towns of the ears such as nearby Lavenham or Saffron Walden. We have dug in the picturesque village since July 2011, when weekend of community test-pit excavations were filmed for Michael Wood’s BBC series, ‘The Great British Story: A People’s History’. Since then we have built up a large database about the village which can be accessed here. This year we returned with pupils from Thomas Gainsborough School and Ormiston Sudbury Academy to excavate 5 test pits around the village.

Based at the Old School Hall, local co-ordinator Rob Simpson had again organised for sponsorship from the local East of England Co-Op in Long Melford to provide snacks for the participants. We would like to extend our very great thanks for their provisions of water bottles and snacks as they were much needed in the incredibly warm weather. We would also like to thank the kind home owners, not only for letting us excavate in their gardens but going that extra mile by providing cooling drinks and sun shades.

After receiving a briefing on Day 1 from Cat Collins, Archaeological Supervisor, about how to excavate and record the test pits, the students went out and started digging! With new tools and skills to grasp, we were impressed at the speed at which the pupils worked in the hot sun, excavating context by context and recording all of their findings context-by-context in their individual Test Pit Excavation Record Booklet. We stress that the recording process is just as important, if not more so, than the physical digging aspect. This record booklet and their recordings and findings form part of the permanent archive kept at the University of Cambridge. It is also crucial in helping the participants produce a written report about their individual test pit.

On day two of the excavations the sun shone even more brightly and warmly but we soldiered on and were joined by John Newman, pottery expert, who toured the test pits providing guidance on excavating and recording techniques as well as identifying finds, faunal remains and pottery sherds. Laure Bonner, Outreach and Communications Coordinator at the Department of Archaeology and Anthropology (and past ACA team member) also joined us talking to students about their work as well as their future school and career choices. As well as interest from local people, the Suffolk Free Press came by to record the event and their article should be available later this week.

The pupils were soon discovering the archaeology of Long Melford for themselves with all test pits finding plenty of easily identifiable Victorian pottery, brick and tile fragments, clay pipes including a bowl fragment with makers initials RS on spur. A few highlights included the leg of a medieval pipkin (a type of 3-legged bowl) in test pit 4 and in Test Pit 5 on the village green some late saxon/ early medieval Thetford ware. One of the most unusual finds we had were a set of dentures! Worn at the molars, there was much guessing about how they could have come to be discarded, leading to wider conversations about how objects are deposited and therefor what we can and can’t infer from the archaeological record.


The aim of every HEFA is for the students to find out more about higher education by working alongside experts to contribute to ongoing university research; to develop and deploy skills for life, learning and employment such as data analysis, communication skills and team working; as well as completing an archaeological test-pit excavation to tell us more about the development of a Currently Occupied Rural Settlement. The HEFA participants have two days to complete their excavation and then analyse their findings on a third day’s visit to the University of Cambridge. This year we also had 6th formers from both schools keen to gain leadership experience as well as archaeological skills by supervising the younger pupils on their excavations.

Finally the students spent a day in Cambridge, attending lectures from Nick James about the wider project. From Emma Paulus, School Liaison Officer at Pembroke College about university life and finally from Jenni French about how to write their report. Students went away with skills that they can apply to all areas of their life. One student commented on these life skills that they felt they had “a stronger work ethic from digging even though there may not be anything to find”. Certainly others greatly enjoyed learning about what they did find, seeing what archaeologist actually do, how one my go about researching a question and “understanding the stories behind every little thing I found”.

It was a brilliant end to our HEFA season and we’re already planning for the next year. We’ll keep you updated with any other excavations that we are part of and hope that the pupils we have worked with this year continue to be inspired by the experiences they have had with us.

TP 1o


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